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Full text of "Linguistic Survey Of India Vol Ii Mon Khmer Siamese Chinese Families"

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AHOM     VERfiS                                                                         &D
It will be seen that the words performing the functions of verbs take no special
particles to indicate mood.
1 If' m Khamti is ka-ye, added at the end of the sentence, or siting, $Ung~vM    The apodosis taken
cham,    In SbiLn ' if' is po.
An indefinite participial force is given by adding ski to the word performing the
function of a verh. To give it a past force o may be added (compare the pluperfect).
Thus, tai-shi, dying; pai-nai-shi, going unexpectedly; ndng-sfti, u-shi, being, having
been; sai-shi-o, gone.
Often no particle is added, as in M ban, the said day, the day referred to.
At the same time, when it is remembered that participles are only verbal adjectives,
and that it is just as easy for an Ahom word to perform the functions of an adjective as
to perform those of a verb, it is stretching the terminology of Indo-European grammars
too far to talk of participles at all.
Similarly, it is useless to talk of Infinitives. An infinitive is only a verbal noun,
and an JLhom word can perform the functions of a noun as easily as it performs those
of an adjective or a verb. Hence, what we should call infinitives, are only the root-word
itself without any particle added. ThusZd& means* steal1, and must be translated eto
steal', in kau lau Idk pai-ka31 not steal went, I did not go to steal. Similarly ai lap,
shame hide, in order to hide disgrace.
Causals, inceptives, potentials, and continuatives are formed by compounding with
other words. For examples, see the section on couplets and compounds above.
Number and Person—No word performing the function of a verb ever changes its
form for number or person. Both of these must be gathered from the context
Synopsis*—To sum up, if we adopt the forms and terminology of Indo-European
grammar, the following is the conjugation of the verb po3 strike :—
Present                   kaupo, I strike.
Present Dejmte      kau po~u, I aib, striMng
Imperfect                 kau pO'U-jaUj I was striking.
Past                        kau po or km po-jau, I struck.   Km pai«kdt I went
(there is no instance of po taking the suffiz kd in
the materials available).
Perfect                     kaupo-koi or -u-koit I have struck.
Pluperfect                kaupo-jau-Q? I had struck.
Future                     kau ti-po, I shall strike
Future Perfect         kau po-tt-koi or ka,® ti-po*fau, I shall have struck.
Participle IndejMe po-shi, striking1.
Participle Past        po-sM-o, struck.
Infinitive                   po, to strike,
Carnal                      kau hau-po, I cause to strike.
Inceptive                  kaupo-kan, I begin to stake.
Potential                  kaupin-po, I may, am able to} strike.
kau po-dai, I can strike^ I can bo struck.
Continuative             kanpo-m> I strike continually,
Passive                    kau-mai pot beats me, I am struck.